Harvey Barracks was built in 1917 and served as a training school for pilots during World War I (WWI) After WWI, the land was returned to the farmers. In 1933, the area was used as an airfield. Additional barracks and a hanger were built, which served as a training school. The training school originally trained civilian personnel for the "Luftwaffe" (German Air Force). Pilots from the famous dive bomber squadrons and pursuit planes were also trained in Kitzingen. Towards the end of World War II (WWII), a few jets were stationed at Harvey Barracks and hidden in the forest. At the end of 1945, US Army units took over Harvey Barracks and from 1947-1949 it was called the Kitzingen Training Center. On 2 April 1951, Harvey Barracks regained its name in honor of Captain James R. Harvey, Company E, 359th Infantry, who was killed during the invasion of Normandy, France. For his actions of extraordinary heroism, he was awarded the distinguished service cross posthumously.
The Department of Defense announced on July 29, 2005 plans for the return of eleven Army bases to Germany in fiscal year 2007. Additionally, two other bases were identified for return to Germany in following years. These installation returns were scheduled as part of plans for the 1st Infantry Division headquarters'return to the United States with its divisional flag in the summer of 2006. Additionally, the 1st Infantry Division's subordinate units, as well as selected V Corps and U.S. Army in Europe units, return to the United States, inactivate entirely, convert, or be reassigned in Europe to support Army transformation in fiscal year 2006.